Indigenous groups make up more than half of Bolivia’s population of about 11 million, making it the first indigenous country in Latin America after Guatemala, and its peoples speak more than 35 different languages in addition to Spanish. 


At the beginning of the first term of former President Evo Morales, Bolivia adopted the official name of the "Pluractional State of Bolivia", in recognition of dozens of ethnic nationalities that trace their origins back to the eras prior to the arrival of the Spaniards that came to that country in the late fifteenth century AD.


On the other hand, Bolivia ranks sixth in terms of area among Latin American countries, and is geographically "squeezed" between the two giants Brazil and Argentina, and has been in conflict with Chile for years over an area that would provide it with a single maritime outlet on the Pacific Ocean. 


Like most of the Latin American countries that gained independence from the Spanish crown during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Bolivia is still facing disputes with its neighbors over land borders since it gained independence in 1825 under the name “Upper Peru” before its name became Bolivia.


Until 2006, Bolivia was a semi-forgotten country in the regional ocean and internationally. But with the arrival of Evo Morales to the presidency in 2006, as the first indigenous president in Latin America, attention began to turn to this country, which changed its official name and allowed the cultivation, manufacture and marketing of the coca plant on a large scale for food and therapeutic purposes, and began to achieve growth year after year.


Days after assuming his first term in 2006, Morales announced the nationalization of the gas sector, and decided to distribute his income to provinces, municipalities, official universities, and social, health and educational institutions that care for indigenous peoples and the poor classes.


At the time, behind those decisions was a minister for the economy, at the beginning of his fourth decade, named Luis Arce, who would assume the presidency within days, after his victory last Sunday, in the elections in which the Movement to Socialism party won the absolute majority in the Senate and the House of Representatives.



This policy was behind what became known after that as the "Bolivian economic miracle", which continued to achieve annual growth of around 5 percent, until last year, and contributed to the highest global rate of poverty reduction, according to World Bank data. It raised the income of the poor by more than 40 percent within ten years, and contributed to the highest rise in life rates among Latin American countries, reaching ten years in 2018, according to World Health Organization data.